.deb软件包的安装和软件的卸载

前言:

.deb格式的软件包是Debian和Ubuntu等Linux发行版软件安装包的文件扩展名。

使用.deb格式软件安装包安装软件

命令如下:

sudo dpkg -i package_file.deb

Debian和Ubuntu上卸载软件

命令如下:

sudo apt-get autoremove --purge software_name

或者使用如下命令:

sudo dpkg -r software_name

解决BackBox中Fcitx输入法中文输入状态下不显示候选词框的问题

当我们安装Fcitx输入法时默认是安装了下面这个组件的:

fcitx-module-kimpanel

该组件在非KDE桌面环境下可能会使Fcitx输入法在输入中文时无法显示候选词框。

使用下面的命令移除该组件后重启操作系统即可:

sudo apt-get remove fcitx-module-kimpanel

注:该方法同样适用于尝试解决在Ubuntu上遇到的类似问题。

2017年BackBox5和Ubuntu16.04.1更新源

BackBox是基于Ubuntu的Linux发行版,因此,我们可以使用Ubuntu的更新源作为BackBox的更新源。
1.查看系统版本信息:
输入:

uname -a

显示计算机及操作系统的有关信息,在回显里我们可以看到:

Linux master 4.10.0-38-generic #42~16.04.1-Ubuntu SMP Tue Oct 10 16:30:51 UTC 2017 i686 i686 i686 GNU/Linux

这表明我们现在使用的Linux内核是Ubuntu

另外我们还可以通过输入命令:

cat /proc/version

查看内核版本,运行回显如下:

Linux version 4.10.0-38-generic (buildd@lgw01-amd64-020) (gcc version 5.4.0 20160609 (Ubuntu 5.4.0-6ubuntu1~16.04.4) ) #42~16.04.1-Ubuntu SMP Tue Oct 10 16:30:51 UTC 2017

输入:

cat /etc/issue

可以查看当前使用的发行版的信息,回显如下:

BackBox Linux 5 \n \l

因此,本文的操作环境为:
BackBox 5(基于Ubuntu16.04.1)

当然,在添加更新源时对版本的要求也不是这么绝对,一般情况下,只要更新源本身还在更新并能通过互联网访问,那么更新源就是可以使用的。

2.BackBox 5自带的更新源
BackBox 5自带的更新源均指向Ubuntu的官网地址,自带的更新源如下:

#deb cdrom:[BackBox Linux 5 - Release i386]/ xenial main multiverse restricted universe

# See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to
# newer versions of the distribution.
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted
# deb-src http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted

## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted
# deb-src http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any
## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial universe
# deb-src http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial universe
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe
# deb-src http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse
# deb-src http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse
# deb-src http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse

## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's
## 'partner' repository.
## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by Canonical and the
## respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu users.
# deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
# deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security main restricted
# deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security universe
# deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security multiverse
# deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security multiverse

3.补充BackBox国内更新源:
输入:

sudo leafpad /etc/apt/sources.list

使用leadpad打开更新源配置文件。
也可以输入:

sudo vi /etc/apt/sources.list

使用vi编辑器打开更新源配置文件
注:不要忘记加上sudo

将以下更新源复制到原更新源的前面保存即可:

#阿里云源
# deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 16.04 LTS _Xenial Xerus_ - Release amd64 (20160420.1)]/ xenial main restricted
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial main restricted #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial universe
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse #Added by software-properties
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security universe
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security multiverse

#网易源
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ precise-backports main restricted universe multiverse

#中科大源:
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main multiverse restricted universe

#东北大学源
deb-src http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted
deb-src http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted
deb-src http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial universe
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse #Added by software-properties
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted
deb-src http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security universe
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security multiverse

#清华大学源
# deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 16.04 LTS _Xenial Xerus_ - Release amd64 (20160420.1)]/ xenial main restricted
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial universe
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security universe
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security multiverse

注:更改更新源之前最好先对原有的更新源做一个备份,备份命令:

sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.backup

附:
Ubuntu中文官网源列表地址

BackBox错误,无法获得锁…资源暂时不可用…无法锁定管理目录

今天准备给BackBox安装leafpad时,输入

sudo apt install leafpad

后出现了如下的错误提示:

E: 无法获得锁 /var/lib/dpkg/lock - open (11: 资源暂时不可用)
E: 无法锁定管理目录(/var/lib/dpkg/),是否有其他进程正占用它?

出现这种情况一般是由于apt-get进程在后台占用导致的,使用以下命令强制解锁被占用的资源:

sudo rm /var/cache/apt/archives/lock
sudo rm /var/lib/dpkg/lock

之后再安装leafpad,成功安装。